Working Paper CNR-Ircres 3/2023                    
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Climate change adaptation planning: tools and methods for effective and sustainable decisions

Filippo Fraschinia,b, Marco Pregnolatoc



aCNR-IRCrES, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto di Ricerca sulla Crescita Economica Sostenibile, Milano, Italia
bFondazione CIMA, Savona, Italia
cEcometrics, S.r.l., Milano

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Climate change is a crucial challenge to sustainable development. Climate greatly contributes to setting development conditions and constraints, considerably affecting the availability and quality of natural resources and local environment. Besides mitigation efforts, adaptation strategies and measures are needed in the attempt to reduce the expected negative impacts of global warming, to increase the resilience of the communities and to take advantage of the positive effects. However, despite the urgency of adaptation policies, the multitude of national and sub-national adaptation strategies and plans have not been implemented evenly. We argue that this may well be connected to the fragmented and often puzzling theoretical framework of adaptation, along with the high level of uncertainty that characterises the ratio between the costs of climate change impacts and the benefits of adaptation measures, while there are also issues concerning accountability problems and ownership of the adaptation process. In this paper, we discuss some of the most relevant tasks for the identification of effective, sustainable, and integrated adaptation strategies. The aim is to help public decision-makers in the definition and implementation of measures, considering the peculiar vulnerabilities and development objectives of local communities.

Keywords: climate change adaptation; decision support tools; climate risks; adaptive capacity; uncertainty; flexibility.

DOI: 10.23760/2421-7158.2023.003



How to Cite this Article

Fraschini, F., Pregnolato, M. (2023). Climate change adaptation planning: tools and methods for effective and sustainable decisions (CNR-IRCrES Working Paper 3/2023). Torino: CNR-IRCrES. Available at



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